VIII. Citations

Historians use the Chicago Manual of Style, which is quite different from the style guide used in English classes -- that is the Modern Language Association style, or MLA.  You will need to cite all of the ideas and quotes you take from your sources with footnotes, numbered continuously through the paper.


Here's what the footnote reference should look like in your paper:


            Others suggested that the saleswoman was a more assertive, that women behind the counter could be relied upon to "awe...and subdue"[1] the customer into making purchases.       

This is what footnotes and bibliography entries look like. Notice the indentations!



            1Helen Jamison, "Continued Loss Of Sleep Termed Beauty-Wrecker." Atlanta

Daily World,  January 2, 1945, 3. <> (December 2, 2008).


2Allen Polite. "The Dope Cabala and the Wall of Fire." In The Portable Sixties Reader, ed. Anne Charters. (New York: Penguin Books, 2003), 23-35.


3Ibid., 25.


4Pooter, "I am Pooter," p, 24.



"Record Crowd Sees Mummers' Parade." The New York Times, 2 January

1965, 16. (12 February 2007).


Polite, Allen. "Song." In The Portable Sixties Reader, ed. Anne Charters. New

York: Penguin Books, 2003.


"Why buy Stuff?" Advertisement for Fluff Stuffing, in Bob Heinnemann All-American     Advertisements of the 1940s. New York: Penguin Books, 2001.


Chicago Manual Short Guide

Chicago/Turabian Guide Style for Bibliography

-Please note:

  • the second line gets indented five spaces
  • titles may be underlined or put in italics
  • separate primary from secondary sources
  • alphabetize by author’s last name in each section

Book by one author:

Bowman, John Stewart. Treasures of Ancient Greece. New York: Crescent Books, 1986.


Book by two authors:

Lynd, Robert, and Helen Lynd. Middletown: A Study in American Culture. New York:
     Harcourt, Brace and World, 1929.


Book with an editor:

Margolis, Joseph, ed. Philosophy Looks at the Arts: Contemporary Readings in
. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987.


Article or chapter in a collected work:

Silverberg, Susan B. “Parents’ Well-Being at Their Children’s Transition to

Adolescence.” In The Parental Experience in Midlife.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.


Article or Chapter originally published elsewhere:

Adamic, Louis.  “Louis Adamic: New Americans.” In Annals of America. Vol. 15.
     Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1968. Originally published in Harper’s, (May   



Reference Books:
Morris Jastrow, “Nebo” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed.)

Journal Article:

Basch, Norma. “Marriage, Morals, and Politics in the Election of 1828.” Journal of

American History 80 (1993): 890-917.


Magazine Article:

Golden, Frederic, and Annie Murphy Paul. “Making Over Mom and Dad.” Psychology
,  June 1999.


Newspaper Article:

Capista, Joe.  “Fear of Social Interaction is a Common Disorder.” The Times-Picayune.
            9 June 1999, E5.

Citing the World Wide Web:

Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy. Washington, D.C.  20 January 1961.    

<> (17 October 1998).


Chicago/Turabian Guide Style for Footnotes

Please note:

  • the first line gets indented five spaces
  • titles may be underlined or italicized


Book by a Single Author, First Edition:

1 Donald N. McCloskey, Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1981), 54.


Book by Two or Three Authors:

3 Donald A. Lloyd and Harry R. Warfel, American English and Its Cultural Setting (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956), 12.


Book by More than Three Authors:

4 Martin Greenberger et al., eds., Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974), 50.


Book by an Unknown Author:

5 College Bound Seniors (Princeton: College Board Publications, 1979), 1.


Book with Both an Author and an Editor or Translator:

6 Helmut Thielicke, Man in God's World, trans. and ed. John W. Doberstein (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), 12.


Article in a Journal:

10 Louise M. Rosenblatt, "The Transactional Theory: Against Dualisms," College English 54 (1993): 380. 


Article online:

11John F. Kennedy, “Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy, “ January 1961,  <> (17 October 1998).


Newspaper Article:

12 Tyler Marshall, "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated," Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

["p." is used to make clear the difference between the page and section numbers.]


Encyclopedia Entry:

13 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Wales."

[The Latin sub verbo means "under the word."]


Interview by Writer of Research Paper:

14 Donna E. Shalala, interview by author, Madison, Wisconsin, 1 December 1992.


A Primary Source found in a Secondary Source:

20 Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1981),

[The student-writer found the Zukofsky quotation in Costello's book, not in Zukofsky's original article.]

[1] Benson, Counter Cultures, 23